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Sustainable Development Goals



Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere

●  Globally, the number of people living in extreme poverty has declined by more than half from 1.9 billion in 1990. However, 836 million people still live in extreme poverty. About one in five persons in developing regions lives on less than $1.25 per day.

●  Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are home to the overwhelming majority of people living in extreme poverty.

●  High poverty rates are often found in small, fragile and conflict-affected countries.

●  One in four children under age five in the world has inadequate height for his of her age.


Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

●  Globally, the proportion of under nourished people in the developing regions has fallen by almost half since 1990, from 23.3% in 1990-1992 to 12.9% in 2014-2016. However, one in nine people in the world today (795 million) are still undernourished.

●  The vast majority of the world’s hungry people live in developing countries, where 12.9% of the population is undernourished.

●  Asia is the continent with the hungriest people –

●  two-thirds of the total. The percentage in southern Asia has fallen in recent years, but in western Asia it has increased slightly.

●  Sub-Saharan Africa is the region with the highest prevalence (percentage of population) of hunger. About one person in four there is undernourished.

●  Poor nutrition causes nearly half (45%) of deaths in children under five – 3.1 million children each year.

●  One in four of the world’s children suffer stunted growth. In developing countries the proportion rises to one in three.

●  66 million primary school-age children in developing countries attend classes hungry, with 23 million in Africa alone.

●  Agriculture is the single largest employer in the world, providing livelihoods for 40% of today’s global population. It is the largest source of income and jobs for poor rural households.

●  500 million small farms worldwide, most still rain fed, provide up to 80% of food consumed in a large part of the developing world. Investing in smallholder farmers is an important way to increase food security and nutrition for the poorest, as well as food production for local and global markets.


Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages Child health

●  17,000 fewer children die each day than in 1990, but more than six million children still die before their fifth birthday each year.

●  Since 2000, measles vaccines have averted nearly 15.6 million deaths. 

●  Despite global progress, an increasing proportion of child deaths are in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Four out of every five deaths of children under age five occur in these regions.



Maternal health

●  Globally, maternal mortality has fallen by almost 50% since 1990.

●  In Eastern Asia, Northern Africa and Southern Asia, maternal mortality has declined by around two-thirds. But, the maternal mortality ratio – the proportion of mothers that do not survive childbirth compared to those who do – in developing regions is still 14 times higher than in the developed regions.

●  Only half of women in developing regions receive the recommended amount of health care.



●  By 2014, there were 13.6 million people accessing antiretroviral therapy, an increase from just 800,000 in 2003.

●  New HIV infections in 2013 were estimated at 2.1 million, which was 38% lower than in 2001.

●  At the end of 2013, there were an estimated 35 million people living with HIV.

●  At the end of 2013, 240,000 children were newly infected with HIV.


Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

●  Enrolment in primary education in developing countries has reached 91%, but 57 million children remain out of school.

●  More than half of children who have not enrolled in school live in sub-Saharan Africa.

●  An estimated 50% of out-of-school children of primary school age live in conflict-affected areas. Children in the poorest households are 4 times as likely to be out of school as children in the richest households.

●  The world has achieved equality in primary education between girls and boys, but few countries have achieved that target at all levels of education.

●  Among youth aged 15 to 24, the literacy rate has improved globally from 83 percent to 91 per cent between 1990 and 2015.


 Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

●  In Southern Asia, only 74 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in 1990.By 2012, the enrolment ratios were the same for girls and for boys.

●  In sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania and Western Asia, girls still face barriers to entering both primary and secondary school.

●  Women in Northern Africa hold less than one in five paid jobs in the non-agricultural sector.

●  In 46 countries, women now hold more than 30% of seats in national parliament in at least one chamber.


Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

●  In 2015, 91% of the global population is using an improved drinking water source, compared to 76% in 1990. However, 2.5 billion people lack access to basic sanitation services, such as toilets or latrines.

●  Each day, an average of 5,000 children die due to preventable water and sanitation-related diseases.

●  Hydro power is the most important and widely used renewable source of energy and as of 2011, represented 16% of total electricity production worldwide.

●  Approximately 70% of all available water is used for irrigation.

●  Floods account for 15% of all deaths related to natural disasters.


Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

●  1.3 billion people – one in five globally – still lack access to modern electricity.

●  3 billion people rely on wood, coal, charcoal or animal waste for cooking and heating.

●  Energy is the dominant contributor to climate change, accounting for around 60% of total global greenhouse gas emissions.

●  Energy from renewable resources – wind, water, solar, biomass and geothermal energy – is inexhaustible and clean. Renewable energy currently constitutes 15% of the global energy mix.

 Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

●  Global unemployment increased from 170 million in 2007 to nearly 202 million in 2012,of which about 75 million are young women and men.

●  Nearly 2.2 billion people live below the US$2 poverty line and poverty eradication is only possible through stable and well-paid jobs.

●  470 million jobs are needed globally for new entrants to the labour market between 2016 and 2030.

●  Small and medium-sized enterprises that engage in industrial processing and manufacturing are the most critical for the early stages of industrialization and are typically the largest job creators. They make up over 90% of business world wide and account for between 50-60% of employment.


Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation 

●  About 2.6 billion people in the developing world are facing difficulties in accessing electricity full time.

●  2.5 billion people worldwide lack access to basic sanitation and almost 800 million people lack access to water, many hundreds of millions of them in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

●  1 to 1.5 million people do not have access to reliable phone service.


●  For many African countries, particularly the lower-income countries,infrastructure constraints affect company productivity by around 40%.

●  Manufacturing is an important employer, accounting for around 470 million jobs worldwide in 2009 – or around 16% of the world’s workforce of 2.9 billion. It is estimated that there were more than half a billion jobs in manufacturing in 2013.

●  Industrialization’s job multiplication effect has a positive impact on society.Every one job in manufacturing creates 2.2 jobs in other sectors.

●  In developing countries, barely 30% of agricultural production undergoes industrial processing. In high-income countries, 98% is processed. This suggests that there are great opportunities for developing countries in agribusiness.


Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries

●  On average – and taking into account population size – income inequality increased by 11%in developing countries between 1990 and 2010.

●  A significant majority of households in developing countries – more than 75% – are living today in societies where income is more unequally distributed than it was in the 1990s.

●  Children in the poorest 20% of the population are still up to three times more likely to die before their fifth birthday than children in the richest quintiles.


●  Social protection has been significantly extended globally, yet persons with disabilities are up to five times more likely than average to incur catastrophic health expenditures.

●  Despite overall declines in maternal mortality in the majority of developing countries, women in rural areas are still up to three times more likely to die while giving birth than women living in urban centres.


Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable                                                                                      

●  Half of humanity – 3.5 billion people – lives in cities today. By 2030, almost 60% of the world’s population will live in urban areas.

●  828 million people live in slums today and the number keep srising.

●  The world’s cities occupy just 2% of the Earth’s land, but account for 60 – 80% of energy consumption and 75% of carbon emissions. Rapid urbanization is exerting pressure on fresh water supplies, sewage, the living environment, and public health. But the high density of cities can bring efficiency gains and technological innovation while reducing resource and energy consumption.

●  Cities have the potential to either dissipate the distribution of energy or optimise their efficiency by reducing energy consumption and adopting green – energy systems.For instance, Rizhao, China has turned itself into a solar – powered city; in its central districts, 99% of households already use solar water heaters.


Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

●  1.3 billion tonnes of food are wasted every year.

●  If people worldwide switched to energy-efficient light bulbs, the world would save US$120 billion annually.

●  Should the global population reach 9.6 billion by 2050, the equivalent of almost three planets could be required to provide the natural resources needed to sustain current life styles.

●  More than 1 billion people still do not have access to freshwater.

Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

●  The greenhouse gas emissions from human activities are driving climate change and continue to rise. They are now at their highest levels in history. Global emissions of carbon dioxide have increased by almost 50% since 1990.

●  The atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide have increased to levels unprecedented in at least the last 800,000

years. Carbon dioxide concentrations have increased by 40% since pre-industrial times, primarily from fossil fuel emissions and secondarily from net land use change emissions. The ocean has absorbed about 30% of the emitted anthropogenic carbon dioxide, causing ocean acidification.

●  Each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the Earth's surface than any preceding decade since 1850. In the Northern Hemisphere, 1983-2012 was likely the warmest 30-year period of the last 1,400 years.

●  From 1880 to 2012, average global temperature increased by 0.85°C. Without action, the world’s average surface temperature is projected to rise over the 21st century and is likely to surpass 3 degrees Celsius this century – with some areas of the world, including in the tropics and subtropics, expected to warm even more. The poorest and most vulnerable people are being affected the most.

●  The rate of sea level rise since the mid-19th century has been larger than the mean rate during the previous two millennia. Over the period 1901 to 2010, global meansea level rose by 0.19 [0.17 to 0.21]meters.

●  From 1901 to 2010, the global average sea level rose by 19 cm as oceans expanded due to warming and melted ice. The Arctic’s sea ice extent has shrunk in every successive decade since 1979, with 1.07 million km² of ice loss every decade.

●  It is still possible, using an array of technological measures and changes in behaviour, to limit the increase in global mean temperature to two degrees Celsius above pre- industrial levels.

●  There are multiple mitigation pathways to achieve the substantial emissions reductions over the next few decades necessary to limit, with a greater than 66% chance, the warming to 2º C – the goal set by governments. However, delaying additional mitigation to 2030 will substantially increase the technological, economic, social and institutional challenges associated with limiting the warming over the 21st century to below 2 ºC relative to pre-industrial levels


Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

●  Oceans cover three-quarters of the Earth’s surface, contain 97% of the Earth’s water, and represent 99% of the living space on the planet by volume.

●  Globally, the market value of marine and coastal resources and industries is estimated at $3 trillion per year or about 5% of global GDP.

●  Globally, the levels of capture fish eriesare near the ocean’s productive capacity,with catches on


●  the order of 80 million tons.

●  Oceans contain nearly 200,000 identified species, but actual numbers may lie in the millions.

●  Oceans absorb about 30% of carbon dioxide produced by humans, buffering the impacts of global warming.

●  Oceans serve as the world’s largest source of protein, with more than 3 billion people depending on the oceans as their primary source.

●  Marine fisheries directly or indirectly employ over 200 million people.

●  Subsidies for fishing are contributing to the rapid depletion of many fish species and are preventing efforts to save and restore global fisheries and related jobs,causing ocean fisheries to generate US$ 50 billion less per year.

●  As much as 40% of world oceans are heavily affected by human activities,including pollution, depleted fisheries, and loss of coastal habitats.

Goal 15: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

●  Thirteen million hectares of forests are being lost every year.

●  Around 1.6 billion people depend on forests for their livelihood. This includes some 70 million indigenous people. Forests are home to more than 80% of all terrestrial species of animals,plants and insects.

●  2.6 billion people depend directly on agriculture, but 52% of the land used for agriculture is moderately or severely affected by soil degradation.

●  Due to drought and desertification each year, 12 million hectares are lost (23 hectares per minute), where 20 million tons of grain could have been grown.

●  Of the 8,300 animal breeds known, 8% are extinct and 22% are at risk of extinction.

●  As many as 80% of people living in rural areas in developing countries relyon traditional plant-based medicines for basic healthcare.


Goal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

●  The number of refugees of concern to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) stood at 13 million in mid-2014,up from a year earlier.

●  Corruption, bribery, theft and tax evasion cost some US $1.26 trillion for developing countries per year.

●  The rate of children leaving primary school in conflict-affected countries reached 50% in 2011, which amounts to 28.5 million children.


Goal 17: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

●  Official development assistance (ODA) stood at approximately $135 billion in 2014.

●  In 2014, 79% of imports from developing countries entered developed countries duty-free.

●  The debt burden on developing countries remains stable at about 3% of export revenue.

●  The number of internet users in Africa almost doubled in the past four years.


●  As of 2015, 95% of the world’s population is covered by a mobile-cellular signal.

●  30% of the world’s youth are digital natives, active online for at least five years.

●  Internet penetration has grown from just over 6% of the world’s population in 2000 to 43% in 2015.

●  But more than four billion people do not use the Internet, and 90% of them are from the developing world.



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